Glossary

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G

Gall bladder

A pear-shaped sac located below the right lobe of the liver. Responsible for bile production.

Gallstone

A hard mass made up of bile pigments, calcium salts and cholesterol. They can cause severe pain.

Ganglioneuromas

Rare tumours that occur most often in people aged between 10 and 40. They are usually benign (not cancerous) and are often discovered during a test for another condition. There are no known risk factors involved.

Gangrene

Decomposition and death of a part of the body caused by a lack of blood flow.

Gastrectasia

The dilation of the stomach.

Gastric

Anything relating to the stomach.

Gastric Ulcer

An ulcer in the stomach.

Gastroenteritis

The inflammation of the stomach and intestine. Normally caused by a viral bacterial infection or as a result of food poisoning. Symptoms include diarrhoea, vomiting and fever.

Gastroenterology

The study of a digestive system. A doctor who specialises in disorders of the digestive system is called a gastroenterologist.

Gastroscopy

This is a test that is used to look at the way a person digests their food.

Gastrostomy

A way of feeding where the food goes directly into a tube in the stomach bypassing the mouth and throat.

Gene

Each cell in the body contains about 50,000 different genes. Each gene tells a particular cell how to work.

General anaesthetic

The name of a medication that sends a patient to sleep and stops them feeling pain during a surgical procedure by blocking signals from nerves to the brain.

Genetics

Genes are what make you like your parents. They decide what colour your hair is, how tall you are and even what you sound like. They're like computer data that's carried on DNA (deoxyribonucleic acid) and decoded by your body.

Geriatric

Meaning old age.

Germ

Germs cause diseases. There are different types of germ, including viruses and bacteria.

Gingiva

The medical term for gums.

Gland

Glands are the areas of the body that give off hormones and enzymes.

Glaucoma

A condition of the optic nerve that can lead to a loss of vision. Most common in the elderly.

Glucose

A simple sugar that is an important source of energy in th body and is the sole source of energy for the brain.