Glossary

A B C D E F G H I J K L M N O P Q R S T U V W X Y Z

S

Saline

A mixture of water and salt, which is used to replace body fluids.

Saliva

The fluids that flow into your mouth from your salivary glands and the mucous membrane inside your mouth. Its main functions are to assist with swallowing food and to keep the mouth moist.

Scab

A hard crust that forms on the skin during the body’s healing process when it has sustained a wound like a cut or sore.

Scapula

The medical name for the shoulder blade.

Scar

A mark that’s left on the skin after an injury.

Schizophrenia

A severelong-term mental health condition. It causes a range of different psychological symptoms such as hallucinations, delusions, muddled thoughts and changes to behaviour.

Sclerotherapy

A method of shrivelling up blood vessels by injecting a medicine.

Scrotum

The scrotum is part of the male genitals. It is a soft muscular pouch that sits underneath the penis. It holds the testicles, which are two small sacs that produce and hold sperm and hormones.

Sedation

A way of making a patient sleepy, usually before and during a test or procedure.

Seizure

Occurs as a result of abnormal electrical activity in the brain. They can result in a loss of consciousness, and involuntary muscle spasms called convulsions.

Senile Dementia

Dementia that occurs in the elderly.

Sepsis

Infection of a wound by bacteria, which leads to pus forming.

Shock

When the amount of blood flowing around the body drops suddenly. Usually, occurs during an illness or infection. Can also be caused by severe sepsis or an allergic reaction.

Shunt

A passage created to drain liquid from one part of the body to another. Shunts are used to treat a condition called hydrocephalus where there is too much fluid around the brain.

Skeleton

The internal framework of the human body which is comprised of 206 bones in adulthood.

Skin

The outer covering of the body. In humans, it is the largest organ of the integumentary system.

Small bowel

A part of the intestines. It is about six metres long and is located inside the abdomen. The small bowel removes the goodness from food so that it can be absorbed by the body.

Sneezing

Response to something irritating the nose or airway.

Spasm

An uncontrolled and unexpected contraction of a muscle.

Sphincter

A ring of muscle at the entrance or exit of an organ.